ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

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The development of the concept of the book: Environment and Development in Nigeria takes its roots from the 41st Annual Conference of the Nigerian Geographical Association (now Association of Nigerian Geographers) which was held in the University of Uyo, Nigeria in 1998, but was equally attended by scholars outside the discipline of geography. The theme of that conference was “Geography and the Nigerian Environment in the 21st Century”. Key papers presented in that conference were in the areas of climate change, geographic education and the environment, agriculture and the environment, and ecological sustainability. The papers had earlier been published in the
book Geography and the Nigerian Environment in 1998. The publication of Geography and the Nigerian Environment had initiated a spate of programmes in the field of environmental management in the University of Uyo, the most popular of which are the Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Management, the Master of Science Programme in Environmental Management and several allied programmes hosted in the Wetland and
Waste Managements Centre including specializations in the Faculty of Science and Social Sciences, particularly in the Department of Geography and Regional Planning.

Of recent, emphases have broadened and spread outside the environmental
management specializations to include policy oriented perspectives where joint structures
are sought between environmental management and sustainable development. The
concept of the joint structure implicit in the report prepared by the World Commission on
Environment and Development of 1987 provided the philosophy for developing the Master of
Science Programme in Environment and Development currently hosted by the Department
of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Uyo. One of the cardinal points of this
programme is that many development activities are leaving growing numbers of Nigerians
poor and vulnerable and at the same time are degrading the environment, because… “those
who are poor and hungry will often destroy their immediate environment in order to survive:
They will cut down forests, their livestock will overgraze grassland; they will overuse
marginal land, and in growing numbers they will crowd into cities” (Our Common Future, p
28). About 80% of Nigerians live below the poverty line and are therefore agents of
environmental degradation.

Nigeria’s developmental efforts should be sustainable where the needs of the
present generation are met but without compromising the ability of future Nigerians to also
meet their own needs. Sustainable development should be more equitable in its impacts
through the integration of economic and ecological considerations in decision making. This
means that common interest would have to be protected through community knowledge and
support and public participation in decisions about the environmental resources should be
encouraged. Clearly, Nigeria’s main environmental problems are also her main development
problems. Therefore in Nigeria the primary interest regarding development should be to
integrate environmental and economic considerations into development decision making.

From the early to the middle part of the last decade, the Department of Geography,
University of Uyo, Nigeria was a beneficiary of a DFID – funded inter-disciplinary research
programme with Lancaster University, UK, titled: Goverance, Environment and
Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. This action research programme
generated several workshops, activities and fallouts which included a grass-root research
project: Perceptions of Poverty in the Niger Delta of Nigeria (Giving Voice to the Poor People
of the Niger Delta through Oral Testimonies). Much of the gains of these endeavours, I would
say, are reflected in some of the papers found in this volume because several participants in
the earlier research projects have also contributed chapters to this book.

So, it can rightly be said that Environment and Development in Nigeria has
culminated a decade of worthwhile action and academic research in the University of Uyo
and indeed in Nigeria. It may be surprising to many, but certainly not out of the context of this
book that “poverty” was variously defined as “lack of roads, bridges, inability to send children
to school and settle medical bills when same children fell sick, and inability to purchase a
bottle of beer”. Therefore Environment and Development in Nigeria implies infrastructure
planning and development, without which poverty will be promoted, rather than reduced.

The book Environment and Development in Nigeria has benefited from extensive
editorial advantage all of which are properly acknowledged in the appropriate preliminary
sections. The book is divided into four broad but slightly overlapping sections. For a book of
this nature which is considerably in size, the intention, I believe, is to stimulate though along a
defined direction inherent in their contributions. What this means is that Nigeria’s
environment has become a Nigerian environment which is peculiar in its attributes, most of
which are unfolded, explored and analysed in the pages of this book. Environment and
development are intricately interwoven. It is difficult to consider one without the other for to do
so would mean ignoring this intricate relationship.

Imoh Etukudo Ukpong

January 2012.

TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENTS
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION Nigeria’s Environmental Problems are also Her Developmental Problems (I. E. Ukpong)
TABLE OF CONTENT

BOOK ONE
INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 1: Nigeria as an Ecological Unit (I. E. Ukpong)
Chapter 1: Transport and Nigeria’s Environment (M. O. Filani)
Chapter 2: Genesis 1:28. The Philosophy behind Nigeria’s Environmental and Ecological Crises (C. O. E. Enoh)
Chapter 3: Philosophical and Conceptual Consideration in Man-Environment Relationship: Insult, Response and
Environmental Cost (P. E. Adakayi)
Chapter 4: Understanding the Nigerian Environment at the Beginning of of the 21st Century: Some Critical Issues and Approaches (A. Ntukidem)
Chapter 5: A Spatio-Temporal Synthesis of the Crime Environment in Akwa Ibom State (E. E. A. Ikurekong & J. C. Udoh)
Chapter 6: Kaduna Metropolis and Environmental Protection Policies in the 21st Century (D. A. Musa)
Chapter 7: The Need for a New Approach to Environmental Management in Nigeria’s Urban Centres (E. O. Oyewale)
Chapter 8: Problems and Prospects of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of Nigeria (Yekeen A. Sanusi)
Chapter 9: Relocation as an Environmental Management Strategy in Nigeria (A. S. Okude)
Chapter 10: Perception and Identification of Environmental Problems in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (O. B. Ekop)
Chapter 11: Nigeria’s Fuelwood Substitution Programme: A Forgotten Issue? (S. P. Ejaro)
Chapter 12: Industrialization and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria (O. J. Umoh)
Chapter 13: Material Resources Management and Environmental Safety in Rural Development (Arnold R. O. Jibunoh)
Chapter 14: Culture and City Ethos: The Nigerian Urban Environment in the 21st Century (John Edelefo Agbonoga)
Chapter 15: Appraisal of Public Policy on Water Supply in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (J. Atser. P A. Akpan & F. Akpabio)
Chapter 16: Environmental Risk Models of Pollutants from Human Activities (I. R. Udotong, K. E. Akpabio,
I. S. Umoh-Ituen & J. I. Udotong)
Chapter 17: Modelling for Soil Erosion and Other Natural Hazards in Nigeria (Hilary Igwebuike Eze)
Chapter 18: The Known and the Unknown Issues of Water Governance in Nigeria (Emmanuel M. Akpabio & Iniubong E. Ansa).
Chapter 19: What We Know and What We Still Need to Know about the Informal Sector and the Environment in Nigerian Towns (Emmanuella C. Onyenchere)
Chapter 20: Geography as the Centre Stage Discipline for the Study of Nigeria’s Environmental Problems (Raymond Ekam Matiki)
Chapter 21: Institutional Structures for Poverty Alleviation in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Emmanuel M. Akpabio & Imoh E. Ukpong)
Chapter 22: Environment, Health and Socio-Economic Implications of Solid Minerals Mining in Nigeria (lshaku I. Mallo)
Chapter 23: Faith-Based Deforestation in Nigeria (Okechi Dominic Azuwike)
Chapter 24: Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources in Sacred Forests (B. C. Ndukwu)
Chapter 25: Sacred Forests as Indigenous Ecological Refugia for Conservation of Biodiversity in Nigeria. (Pius D. S. Kinako)
Chapter 26: The Flora and Benefits of Savanna Woodlands in Nigeria (A. O. Nwadinigwe & S. S. C. Onyekwelu)
Chapter 27: Indigenous Plants and Traditional Medical Practice in Nigeria (B. C. Orji & C. C. Ibeneme)
Chapter 28: Resource Conflicts and Resolution in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Experience. (Imoh Ukpong)

BOOK TWO
INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 2: Environmental Change: Impacts and
Monitoring in Nigeria (Imoh E. Ukpong)
Chapter 29: The Challenges of Urban Growth in Uyo, Nigeria (Atser Jacob & Akaninyene Mendie)
Chapter 30: Urban Landuse Changes and Neighbourhood Environmental Quality in Nigeria. (Yekeen A. Sanusi)
Chapter 31: Critical Issues in Nigeria’s Urban Transportation Management (P. A. Akpan & M. M. Obot)
Chapter 32: Air Pollution Evaluation of Uyo Metropolis Using Rapid Assessment Procedures (E. E. Ikurekong, E. P. Udofia & E. M. Ekanem)
Chapter 33: Noise Pollution in a Nigerian Urban Centre (P. A. Akpan)
Chapter 34: Some Issues in Accessibility in Nigeria’s Health Care, Environment (Idorenyin Inyang)
Chapter 35: Urbanization and Environmental Management in Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria (Akaniyene Mendie, Atser Jacob & Ibanga Effiong)
Chapter 36: Women and Waste Management in Nigeria’s Urban Centres (A. Dickson)
Chapter 37: The Role of Women in Soil and Water Conservation in Nigeria (Nnenna N. Oti)
Chapter 38: An Evaluation of the Importance of Women in Environmental Management in Nigeria (E. C. Onyenechere)
Chapter 39: Environmental Problems and their Implications for Environmental Education in 21st Century Nigeria.
(C. C. Nsofor)
Chapter 40: Effects of Cassava Processing on Public Health (Emmanuel C. Uttah).
Chapter 41: Hotels and Sexually Related Crimes in Nigeria. (Siyan Peter & Oriola Tope)
Chapter 42: Social Implications of Human Waste Disposal in Nigeria Prisons (Paulinus Emmanuel Etim)
Chapter 43: A Proposal for Improving Traffic Flow in Rotary Intersections in Nigeria. (J. E. Agbonoga & S. B. Ojukannaiye)
Chapter 44: Health Implication of Particulate Pollution in Delta State, Nigeria (S.I.Efe)
Chapter 45: Surface Energy Balance Over Water and Concrete in a Nigerian Urban Environment. (E. Ekanem)
Chapter 46: Indoor Microclimatic Characteristics in Nigeria. (S. I. Efe)
Chapter 47: Radiation Balance Over Concrete Surfaces in Nigeria (E. Ekanem)
Chapter 48: Influences of Meteorology on Respiratory Health in Nigeria. (A. I. Afangideh & E. P. Udofia
Chapter 49: Tourism in Nigeria: Where do Tourists Visit and Why? (Onome Daniel Awaritefe)
Chapter 50: Land Values and Urban Neighbourhood Classification in Nigeria.

BOOK THREE
INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 3: Monitoring Nigeria’s Environment
(Imoh E. Ukpong)
Chapter 51: Evaluation of Water Quality of Sites Before and after Remediation from Hydrocarbon Pollution (A.W.Akpan & L.D. Inyang)
Chapter 52: Effects of Biomass Burning in the Rainforest Zone of Nigeria. (E. P. Udofia & E. E. Ikurekong)
Chapter 53: Solid Waste Disposal in Rural Communities of Ekiti State, Nigeria. (J. O. Adetunberu & S. A. Mikanjuola)
Chapter 54: Environmental Quality of a Petroleum Producing Community in Nigeria. (E. P. Udofia & E. Ikurekong)
Chapter 55: Analysis of the Level of Provision of Rural Roads on the Jos Plateau (B. Dogo)
Chapter 56: Gully Erosion and Neotectonism in South Eastern Nigeria. (N. N. Onu)
Chapter 57: Accelerated Erosion in an Urbanized Watershed in Nigeria. (C. E. Udosen)
Chapter 58: Environmental Change in the Ngadda River Catchment of Borno State, Nigeria (Joshua Tim Ndoho & Victor E. Umoren)
Chapter 59: Analysis of A Nigerian Forest Reserve Using Remotely Sensed Data (Macelinus Akaangee Hula)
Chapter 60: Assessment of Flood Vulnerability of Lokoja Using Remote Sensing and GIS. (J. J. Dukiya)
Chapter 61: Land Use and Land Cover Mapping of Oshodi with GIS Techniques (Joseph Udoh)
Chapter 62: Drought and Land Cover Changes in Borno State of Nigeria. (S. M. Abubakar & H. K. Ayuba)
Chapter 63: Landuse/Landcover Types and Soil Physical Properties in Ibadan, Nigeria (G. E. Akinbola & A. A. Fagbami )
Chapter 64: The Phenomenon of Masswasting on Mkar Hills of Benue State, Nigeria (J. A. Aper & S. A. Iorkua)
Chapter 65: Oil Pollution Around Petroleum Flowstations in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (G. Ayolagha & S. C. Nleremchi)
Chapter 66: Hydrocarbon Content of Croaker Indicates Water Quality of River Estuaries in Nigeria (A. W. Akpan)
Chapter 67: Pollution of Soil with Palm Oil Processing Effluents in Nigeria. (N. C. Agha, G. O. C. Onyia, R. N. Nwabueze & T. O. Nzenwanta)
Chapter 68: Effects of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality in Nigeria. (S. A. Odoemelam)
Chapter 69: Incipient Ecosystem Damage in an Oil Field of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. (I. E. Ukpong)
Chapter 70: Analysis of the Mastrichtian Ajali Sandstone Formation near Okigwe, Nigeria (B. J. Iwuagwu, K. M. Ibe Sr., & N. N. Okoronkwo)
Chapter 71: Contamination of Soils and Crops in an Industrial Waste Dumpsite in Nigeria (P. N. Okeke, B. M. Benny, U. C. Ezurike & C. 0. Nwoko)
Chapter 72: Groundwater and Surface Water Resources of Ebonyi River Catchments, South Eastern Nigeria. (U. U. Egereonu, G. T. Uzoechi & A. C. Akpaka)
Chapter 73: Heavy Metal Pollutants in Soils at Municipal Solid Waste Deposit in Nigeria (P. C. Njoku & A. O. Ayoka)
Chapter 74: Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Freshwater Fish Exposed Petroleum Drilling Mud in Nigeria. (H. C. Nwigwe)
Chapter 75: Pollution of Soil in Nigeria with Cassava Processing Effluents. (R. N. Nwabueze, G. O. C. Onyia, N. C. Agha & C. I. Alozie)
Chapter 76: Effects of Oil Spill on the Germination and Growth of Okro and Tomato Plants in Nigeria. (E. N. Edema & E. L. Etioyobo)
Chapter 77: Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Fish Ponds in Fresh and Brackish Water Biotopes in Nigeria.
(A. W. Akpan)
Chapter 78: Water Quality of Rivers in Nigeria. (U. U. Egereonu & K. M. Ibe Sr)
Chapter 79: Management of Catenary Soils for Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria.(P. I. Ogban, I. P. Akuwe & O. Maduakor)
Chapter 80: Catenary Effect on Soil Fertility in Nigeria. (I. E. Ukpong & A. O. Etim)
Chapter 81: Encrustation and Corrosion Characteristics of Groundwater in Nigeria U.U. Egereonu, K. M. Ibe, Sr, & E. N. Ejike)
Chapter 82: Heavy Metals in Soils Affected by Industrial and Municipal Wastes in Nigeria (G. A. Ayolagha)
Chapter 83: Clustering of Philariasis in Nigeria. (Emmanuel C. Uttah, P. E. Simonsen, E. M. Pedersen & I. K.
Chapter 84: Weather Induced Health Models from the University of Calabar, Nigeria. (A. I. Afangideh & I. Njoku)

BOOK FOUR
INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 4: Threats of Ecological Change in Nigeria (lmoh E. Ukpong)
Chapter 85: The Natural Environment and Crop Production in Nigeria.(I. J. Ekpoh & B. N. Floyd)
Chapter 86: Characterization of Wetland Soils in Nigeria for Agricultural Landuse and Management (I. E. Ukpong & T. O. Ibia)
Chapter 87: Farming Techniques and Soil Quality in the Drylands of Northern Nigeria (E. U. Essiet)
Chapter 88: Incidence of Dry Spells During the Growing Season in Yola, Nigeria. (A. A. Adebayo)
Chapter 89: Continuous Cultivation and Zinc Status in the Semi – Arid Soils of Nigeria (E. O. Iguisi, S. M. Abubakar & I. M. Jaro)
Chapter 90: Effect of Continuous Cultivation on Organic Matter and Nutrient Contents of Some Soils of Nigeria Sudan
Savanna Region (S. M. Abubakar, E. O. Iguisi & I. M. Jaro)
Chapter 91: Effect of Sheetwash on the Texture and Agricultural Potential of Nigerian Coastal Plan Soils. (Imoh E. Ukpong)
Chapter 92: Vegetation and Soils of the Cross River Mangrove Forest of Nigeria. (I. E. Ukpong)
Chapter 93: Deforestation and the Fertility of Nigerian Soils. (I. E. Ukpong & A. Odey)
Chapter 94: Characterization and Fertility Evaluation of some Wetland Soils in Southeastern Nigeria. (I. E. Ukpong)
Chapter 95: Past Practices, Present Problems and Future Possibilities of Sustainable Rice Farming in Nigeria.
(M. A. Okoji)
Chapter 96: Implications of Farming Techniques on Soil Properties in a Part of the Niger Delta Region.
(Emmanuel Akpabio)
Chapter 97: Environmental and Economic Losses from Bush Fires in Nigeria (A. J. Udoh & N. U. Ndaeyo)
Chapter 98: Aspects of the Geology and Groundwater Potentials of the Asu-River Group in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
(K. M. Ibe Sr)
Chapter 99: Groundwater Quality in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria (U. U. Egereonu & K. M. Ibe Sr.)
Chapter 100: Drought and Linkage Effects of Hydro Projects in a Nigerian Watershed (M. E. Eja)
Chapter 101: Environmental Implications of some Agricultural Systems in Nigeria (Emmanuel Akpabio & Nyaudoh Ndaeyo)
Chapter 102: Nutrient Accumulation in Aquatic Macrophytes in Relation to Water Quality in Nigeria (Anthony W. Akpan)
Chapter 103: Degradation of Floral Diversity in the Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem of Nigeria (Francis I. Okpiliya & Asuquo I. Afangide)
Chapter 104: The Nypa Fruticans Threat in Estuaries East of the River Niger Delta, Nigeria. (Imoh E. Ukpong)
Chapter 105: Forest Resources, Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in Southeastern Nigeria. (R. E. Matiki)
Chapter 106: Agroforestry and Resource Management in Abuja, Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory (Clement D. Chup)
Chapter 107: Climate Change in Forest Ecosystems in Nigeria (N. J. Bello & U. G. Isiguzo)
Chapter 108: Fertility Status of Market Garden Soils in Nigeria. (J. O. Moses)
Chapter 109: On the Agricultural Potential of Wetland Soils in Nigeria. (Imoh Ukpong & Ubong Ekong)
Chapter 110: Climate – Soil Interactions in Alley Farming and Sustainable Resources Conservation (E.C. Orji)
Chapter 111: A Study of the Growth Performance and Productivity of Terminalia ivorensis in Plantation and Natural Forest Conditions in Nigeria. (A. Ogidiolu)
Chapter 112: Effects of Deforestation on the Chemical Properties of Soils in Nigeria. I..E. Ukpong, C. A. Okafor & E. M. Akpabio)
Chapter 113: Resource Use Efficiency in Multiple Cropping Systems by Small- Holder Farmers in Nigeria (M. U. Awoke)
Chapter 114: Investment Behaviours in Soil Conservation and Erosion Control Practices in Nigeria (Donatus Orji Onu)
Chapter 115: Impacts of Climatic Variations on Crop Yields in Northern Nigeria (I. J. Ekpoh)
Chapter 116: Social and Economic Implications of Soil Erosion in Nigeria (Hilary Igwebuike Eze)
Chapter 117: Suitability Assessment and Productivity of an Inland Valley Soil for Dry Season Vegetable Production.
(G. E. Akinbola & F. R. Kutu)
Chapter 118: Multivariate Analysis of Data from a Forest Reserve in Nigeria I: The Vegetation Subsystem (I. E. Ukpong & J. N. Essien)
Chapter 119: Multivariate Analysis of Data from a Forest Reserve in Nigeria II: The Soil Subsystem. (I. E. Ukpong & J. N. Essien)
Chapter 120: Multivariate Analysis of Data from a Forest
Reserve in Nigeria III: Correlation of Vegetation Subsystem with Soil Subsystem (I. E. Ukpong & J. N. Essien)
Chapter 121: Multi Criteria Techniques for Land Suitability Evaluation and Optimization of Wetland Rice Farming in Nigeria. (Uwem Jonah Ituen)
Chapter 122: Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Mapping of the Coast of Nigeria (Joseph Udoh)
Chapter 123: Threats to Global Warming in Nigeria.(Robert Etim Ekpenyong)
Chapter 124: Crustaceans Biodiversity and Sediment Studies of a
Post Drilling, Oil Environment in the Marine Coast of Nigeria
(I. T. Nathaniel, O. Oladimeji, T. Akanbi & A. T. Salami)
Index of Authors
Index of Subjects

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