Essentials of educational technology: A handbook for teachers and media practitioners.(3rd Edition) by Inyang-Abia, M. E.


Calabar: MIFAM Services Nig. Ltd.(2004)


Chapter One: Technology- An Overview
Chapter Two: Technology Literacy
Chapter Three: The Nigerian Experience in Technology Transfer and Development
Chapter Four: Educational Technology – A new discipline

Chapter Five: Evolution of Educational Communication and Technologies
Chapter Six: Systems Thinking
Chapter Seven: Instructional Systems Analysis and Technology
Chapter Eight: Instructional Objectives: The Basic Concepts
Chapter Nine: Instructional Objectives: How to Generate and Evaluate Them
Chapter Ten: Communication: Meaning, Purpose, Types and Levels
Chapter Eleven: Instructional Communication: Process and Application
Chapter Twelve: Instructional Media: Taxonomy and Uses
Chapter Thirteen: Instructional Media Display Formats: Their Characteristics and Utilization
Chapter Fourteen: Community Resources, Textbooks and Recordings
Chapter Fifteen: Instructional Materials: Improvisation and Utilization
Chapter Sixteen: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Education
Chapter Seventeen: Digital Instruction References



This book is an introductory text to Educational Communications and Technology. It is specially designed for all categories of instructors; teachers, their trainers and education students at the Colleges of Education, Advance Teachers Colleges, Polytechnics and Universities will benefit immensely. Students of Communication will also benefit from it. Serious efforts have been made to cover the major aspects of the course for which the book is designed. This has resulted in sampling of some major topical areas for some in—depth treatment. However, areas related to equipment operation are deliberately omitted partly because they are too technical for a text of this nature, but mostly because these areas are better practiced than read about in isolation.

The production of this text is the effort of people too numerous to mention. Topmost among them are my family members whose convenience was sacrificed. Their encouragement, understanding, love and support which fueled this work are hereby acknowledged. Also acknowledged are my students at the Faculty of Education, University of Calabar (1984/85 – 1985/86) whose felt needs and encouragement provided the initial stimulus for the work.

All my friends and colleagues within and outside the Faculty who have contributed in various Ways are also acknowledged. Special acknowledgement and gratitude go to Dr (Minister) P. J. Ntukidem for some graphics. Mr. Anietie Paul Inyang of the Dean’s Office, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar deserves special thanks for typing the manuscript. All authors whose works are cited in the text are also gratefully acknowledged.

Inyang-Abia, M. E.
University of Calabar,
Calabar, Cross River State,
July, 1988


Over two decades of rapid scientific and impressive technological developments that have impacted tremendously on the educational and instructional sectors of the economy dictated the pressing need for a revised and enlarged edition of this book, first published in 1988. The educational sector has witnessed. within this period, very rapid transformation too, especially in its higher education component. The establishment of Universities of Science and Technology, Universities of Agriculture, the Universal Basic Education (UBE) and the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) along with rapid globalization phenomena arising partly from transformational agenda of digital communication framework have all cooperated with cloud computing structures, dotcom technologies and remote sensing systems to dictate new tunes for educators and media practitioners and newer dancing steps for the multi-tasked digital learners.

The modern electronic conjugations and rich media diets of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTS) have now released expanded functionality arising from the limitless capacities of the computers within the information superhighways. Electronic mail (e-mail), e-government, e-newspapers, e-books, e-this and e-that have come to modify the way humans reason, receive, store, disseminate, react to and consume information. Coupled with this, is the astronomical rise in ownership and use of mobile communication gadgets. Its consequence, the rise of m-learning, is very much with us. The launching into space of Nigeria’s satellites from September 2003 has also launched Nigeria into the digital age. The increasing frequency, globalization and fatality of terrorism such as expressed through the September 11, 2001 destruction of the World Trade Centre in U.S.A marked the greatest abuse of technology. This has also remarkably changed the world permanently.

Educational Technology has enormous capacity to capitalize on current and future global digitalization phenomena and unmitigated quest for sustainable developments to prepare the present generation of digital natives and digital immigrants alike, for a more vibrant, competitive yet unknown future. The current revised edition of Essentials of Educational Technology has taken all these into consideration, without losing sight of the glorious contributions of the past and the final assault on monopoly of knowledge unleashed by the onslaught of Knowledge Economy. What of the technological abuse, increasing crime wave and general environmental decay? This revised, enlarged and digital edition sees the potentials of Educational Technology to redress them beyond the present.

Prof. M. E. Inyang-Abia
University of Calabar,

Prof Moses Inyangabia

INYANG-ABIA, Moses, is a Professor of Curriculum Technologies and Environmental Education, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar. He holds a PhD (UNICAL: Curri Tech – 2000); CFS (Strathclyde: Environmental Edu -1990); MA (UNIFE: EduTech -1984); BA (UNICAL: Edu/Geo -1980). He was Director, Institute of Education ( 2006 – 2007); Provost,). Current research focus includes Integration of New Instructional Technologies and Grassroots Climate Change Mitigation Strategies.

His last two national outings were Lead Presentations at the Nigeria’s Centenary Celebration organized by NEST at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, September 24-25, 2014; and the Broad-based Multi-Sector National Education Summit organized at Abuja, Nigeria, by Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) in collaboration with other Campus Unions and Civil Society Groups, 27-31 October, 2014.

Professor Inyang-Abia has travelled extensively, having been to all states of the federation and three continents of the world. He is, by the Grace of God, a Christian to the core. He is happily married to a Princess, Dr. (Mrs.) Eme Inyangabia. They are blessed with many children, in-laws and grandchildren. His major hobbies include reading, writing, conservation activities, religious activities and table tennis. He is a silent achiever

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