Political Theory: Foundation of Social Organizations and Government (1st Edition)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1,The Development 3, Greek Political Theory5, Statement of the Problem 6, Objectives of the book 7, Significance 8, Methodology 9, Organization ll.
CHAPTER 2 – CLASSICAL ANCIENT POLITICAL IDEAS
The City-States 13, Politics of Athens 14, Greek Civilization: Factors of Growth 15, Laboratory of Political
Science: inventions 17, Political Personalities-Pericles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle 22-39, The Demise of the City
State 39, The Protest Philosophers in Greece Epicureans, Cynics, Stoics 42- 45.
CHAPTER 3 – THE ERA OFTHE ROIVIAN JURIISTS
The Fall of Greece; Factors 47, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Natural Equality of Men in the Society 48-53, Lucius
Aniiaeus Seneca, Natural Law, State of nature, Private Property 55-57.
CHAPTER 4- THE CHURCH AND THE STATE
Background: St. Augustine 58, Emperor Constantine 59, Analysis of St, Ambrose 61, The State and the Church:
Development 62, Milestone of Constantine for the Church 65, The Decline of the Roman Empire 66, Era of Universal Commonwealth-St Augustine 66, Augustines Approach 69, The Church, 70, The Theory of Government and the Church 71, Augustine’s State of nature 72, Ecclesiastical and Secular autliority-Supremacy 72, Political Theory of the New Testament 7 5.
CHAPTER 5 – SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS -1225 -1274 (THOMISM)
Setting 79, Slavery 80, Government-Human Nature 81, Civitate-the State 32, Politics 83, Why Men Obey Goveniment 84, Separation of Power, Private Property 85, Law 86.
CHAPTER 6 – FORMS OF POWER ORGANIZATION
Feudalism 88, Structure of Feudalism 91, Contradictions of Feudalism‘ 94, Monarchy 97, Characterics 98, Afrocentric forms of Power 99,
CHAPTER 7 – POLIT!CAL THEORY OF THE 14TH MARSILIUS DA PADOVA-CENTRALIZE
Marsilius Da Padova 102, The Theses of Marsilius 103, The State 104, The Cabinet System 106, Impeachment 108, The Legislature 109.
CHAPTER 8 – THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)
Causes of Civil Wars in England 110, New Testament on Government 110, Divine Rights of Kings- Impact 111, Thomas Hobbes 113, Human nature 114, State of nature 114, Social Contract 115, Monarchy 116, lnterpretation of Hobbes 117, Criticisms 117, Assumption of Hobbes 118.
CHAPTER 9 – DR. JOHN LOCKE THE DEFENDER OF REVOLUTION (1632-1704)
Background of John Locke 120, Profile 121, State of Nature 122 , Property 123, Social Contract 124, Govemment and lts Structure 124-125,Political Economy 126 -128.
CHAPTER 10 NICCOLO DI BERNADO MACHIAVELLI (1459-1527)
Brief 129, Age of Renaissanc 130, Italian Sociology 131, Political Philosophy 131, The State 131, The Government 133, Composition of Democratic Government 133,
Safeguard of Democratic Government 134, Separation of Powers 134, Stability of Government 135.
CHAPTER 11 – JEAN JACQUE ROUSSEAU (1712-1778) THE FATHER OF TOTALITARIANISM
Genesis 138, Social Contract 139, Volonte Generale 140, Private Property 141, Government and Civil Rights 142.
CHAPTER 12- GEORGE WILHELM HEGEL (1770-1853)
Hegel and the State 145 , Philosophy of History (Dialectics)147, Hegel critique of lndividualism 148.
CHAPTER 13 CHARLES SECONDAT BARON DE MONTESQUlEU(1689-1755)
Profile 150, Post Louis XIV Richelieu 151, Montesquieu Objectives 152, Separation of Powers 153, Commentaries 154.
CHAPTER 14 KARL HENRICH MARX
Early Life 157, Premise of understanding 158, The theory underlying Marx 159, Methodology of dialectical materialism 160, Dialectical materialism 162, Substance of the theory 162, Marxian conception of History 164, Historical materialism ll ,l65, The State in Marxism 166, The State: Executive committee of the bourgeoisie-Nigeria 167, Capitalism and Society 167.
CHAPTER 15 – FREE MARKET PRINCIPLES – CAPITALISM
Capitalism 171, Characteristics tree market society 172, Salient Values of the market society 173, Social Classes 174
CHAPTER 16- POLITICAL THEORY OF THE 3RD WORLD
Theme of political philosophy 178, Cradle: Third World Political Philosophers 179, The theses of the theory:Dependency 181, Functionalism ofthe theory 183, Internal obstacle theory 186, Ujamaa-African Socialism 187, The Basis of African Socialism 189, Conception: African Socialism 190, The Amsha Declaration 191, Criticisms 191,
CHAPTER 17- ISSUES IN POLITICAL THEORY
Natural Law 194, Principles of Natural Justice 195, Property 197, Peoples Rights 200, The Nature of Rights 202, Harrington Moore’s Separation of Powers 202, Organization of the Senate 203, Social Contract 206, The Concept of Justice 208, The theory of natural Equality 209, The Nation-State 210
CHAPTER 18 – RENAISSANCE REFORNIATION
Personality Profile 213, Reformation theory 214, Certificate of Pardon 215, Cradle of the Reformation Revolution 216 Luther’s trial 218,Luther’s Defence 218.
CHAPTER 19 – OUTCOMES AND IMPACT
John Locke and the American Revolution 221, MarcusTullius Cicero 222, Separation of Powers 223, IS. Mill and Jeremy Bentham 223,Lucius Seneca 224.
CHAPTER 20 – JEREMY BENTHAM AND J. S. MILL
Premise 27, Jeremy Bentham aid Mill 227, Utilitarianism 228, Importance of Utilitarianism 229, Liberty and the Legislators 230, Legislators and Judges 231, Democracy and the State 232, Representative Government-Separation of Powers 233.
CHAPTER 21- THEORY OF PREBENDALISM AND PATRIMONIALISM
Origin 235, Conception of Prebendalism and Patrimonialism 2237, Prebendalism and Patrimonialism: Western societies 239, The theory: Stage of Political Development 240, Nigeria: Outcomes of Prebendalism and Patrimonialisni 245.
Post-Scripts: (i) Thomas Moore ’s: Utopia
(ii) Edmund Burke
Fora long time, African students and academics have largely confronted political theory and social organizations from the optic nerve of European Scholars. It is this obvious vacuum that the author of this book attempts to fill. The book represents a modest and ambitious attempt by an African author to demystify political theory using both theoretical and empirical insights. Having taught the subject for several years, the author brings his wealth of experience to bear on this work.
In elucidating on the broad stream of political theory, the author presents in simple, concise and understandable knowledge the salient features of ancient and contemporary political theory. The writings of Marcus Tullius Cicero, St. Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, George Hegel, Karl Marx and a host of others are extensively treated in the various chapters of the book with cognizance to the relevance of their thoughts to our contemporary world. The ideology of capitalism and the dependency polemic were also articulated in the work.
The pre-occupation of the work is to gant to its readers access to conceptual and theoretical issues in political theory and to answer some of the most common questions asked by students and academics and provide theoretical insights to them. It might not have covered the entire world of political theory, for in reality, no work can ever do so, but it has set a precedent upon which subsequent works can build.
It is my hope that the readers of the book will find it both interesting and educating and tlius help them better understand the crux of political theory and social organizations as presented from an Africans perspective.
Dr. E.S.I. Ejere,
Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration.
University of Uyo, Uyo,
Akwa lbom State.
The book, ’Political Theory: Foundation of Social Organization and Government’ was conceived to bring the essence of appreciating ‘Political theory’ to the students and all social scientists alike. This is because, more often than not, students tend to see the course and subject as abstract and difficult.
Political Theory is to social sciences, Government and its institutions, what concrete foundations are to buildings. The reason why the superstructure (Governments) generates very many wrong results, is simply because it operates in violation of the dictum ‘salus populi suprema lex, (let the welfare of!/ze people be the supreme law) as we were enjoined by Marcus Tullius Cicero, in the era of the Roman Jurists. John Quincy Adams and Thomas Jefferson relied on the ideas of Cicero, to lay the foundation of American society.
It is instructive to note that when the values, norms and processes of organizations and institutions as espoused by the political thinkers are upheld, the society progresses and we describe it as a ‘developed state’ and vice versa. It is
the position of this book that the first step to political development is the understanding and abiding by the tenets propagated by the political philosophers, with little variation. This complements the thesis of Professor Samuel Huntington on ‘Political Development and Decay’.
A critical part of this text are the commentaries and the chapter on ‘Outcomes and Impact’ of the various political postulations addressed in this book, which is complemented by chapter 18 on the Reformation.
The third world and Africa are not left out in the aiialysis of the trends ofpolitical theory. This is a ventured, which has taken a number of years to put together. Wherever I had taught Political Ideas and Political Thought l and 2, I had picked up the need and the desire to script this book.
Welcome to my world of Political Theory: Foundation of Social Organizations and Government.
E. O. Frank
Dept. of Political Science &
Director- Clement Isong Centre for Development Studies
University of Uyo
Akwa Ibom State .
Dr. Etim Frank
Etim Okon Frank is an articulate scholar of Political Science and Public Administration who has added value to several institutions till he joined University of Uyo in 2008.
His ardent personality has made him a choice candidate for several responsibilities within and outside the University some of which includes Acting-Director Clement Isong Centre for Development Studies, Member, Akwa Ibom Advisory Committee(AIPAC) Niger Delta Dialogue, External Examiner, Department of Public Administration, University of Calabar etc.
He is a member of some high profile professional bodies like Nigerian Institute of Personnel Management, Chartered Institute of Public Diplomacy and Management etc.
His passion for Political and Administrative theories has given birth to several researches published as books, monographs, journal articles, book chapters and conference papers. Majority are open access on his virtual space at www.etimfrank.com.ng.
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