ASPECTS OF SPOKEN ENGLISH by Professors David Eka and Inyang Udofot

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ABOUT THE BOOK
Aspects of Spoken Language deals with sounds and related matters in natural languages. Its focus is a simplification of otherwise difficult concepts and issues in speech production and perception. Students,
lecturers and general readers in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education will find the book a welcome source to return to. For those in departments of English, Linguistics,
Education, Communication Arts and Theatre Arts, the book will remain invaluable or undergraduate students in particular and for advanced students who need additional clarification on specific topics treated.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Both David Eka and Inyang Udofot are professors of English in the University of Uyo. They have had several years of experience of teaching phonetics and editing journals in the
Faculty of Arts and the Department of English, University of Uyo. They have also published journal articles and book chapters nationally and internationally. Professor Eka has published, among others, Elements of Grammar and Mechanics of the English Language, Phonological Foundation I : English and Issues in Nigerian English Usage. Professor (Mrs) Inyang Udofot has published among others A Critical Review of Seven West African Poems, English Semantics and An Introduction to the Morphology of English.

Aspects of spoken language was first published in 1996. It has been reprinted twice: 2001 and 2009.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. PART I: FOUNDATIONS LANGUAGE
1.1 The Nature of Language
1.2 The Primacy of Speech
1.3 Language Mediums
1.4 Features of the Medium
1.4.1 Indexical Features
1.4.2 Aesthetic Features
1.5 The Fiction of Homogeneity .
1.6 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 1

2 PHONETICS
2.1 The Nature of Speech Sounds
2.2 The Study of Speech Sounds
2.3 Branches of Phonetics
2.3.1 Articulatory Phonetics
2.3.2 Auditory Phonetics
2.3.3 Acoustic Phonetics
2.3.4 Relationship of the Branches
2.4 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 2

PART II: CORE ISSUES
3 PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES
3.1 Sounds and Letters
3.2 The Phoneme
3.3 Allophones
3.4 Theories of the Phoneme
3.4 1 The Phoneme as a Phonetic Reality
3.4.2 The Phoneme as a Phonological Reality
3.4.3 The Phoneme as a Psychological Reality
3.5 Phoneme Theories: An Evaluation
3.6 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 3

4 SPEECH PRODUCTION
4.1 The Focus
4.2 The Organs Involved
4.2.1 Problem of Terminology
4.2.2 Categories of Organs
4.3 Production Process
4.3.1 Respiratory and Phonatory Stages
4.3.2 Articulatory Stages
4.4 Fixed and Movable Organs
4.4.1 A relative Description
4.4.2 Specific Functions of Organs
4.5 Sound Articulation: Specific Issues
4.6 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 4

5 TRANSCRIPTION
5.1 Meaning/Conventions
5.2 The IPA
5.3 Transcription: Types and System
5.3.1 Types of Transcription
5.3.2 Systems of Transcription
5.4 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 5

6 CONSONANT SOUNDS
6.1 Sounds in Natural Languages
6.2 Consonants in Natural Languages
6.3 Consonants of English – Analysis
6.4 Consonants of English – Description
6.5 Consonants Position in English Words
6.6 Consonants of Ibibio – Analysis/ Description
6.7 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 6

7 VOWEL SOUNDS
7.1 Vowels in Natural Languages
7.2 Cardinal Vowels
7.3 English Vowels
7.3.1 Pure Vowels
7.3.2 Diphthongs
7.3.3 Triphthongs
7.4 Ibibio Vowels: Analysis / Description
7.5 Summary
7.6 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 7

PART III: EPILOGUE
8 ACHIEVING COMPETENCE IN SPEECH
8.1 The Issues Involved
8.2 Sound Acquisition
8.3 Sound Learning
8.3.1 Sound Learning: The Case of a Second Language
8.3.2 Sound Learning: Foreign and Alternate Languages
8.4 The Model
8.5 Review Questions
NOTES TO CHAPTER 8
REFERENCES
INDEX

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PREFACE
We have written Aspects of Spoken Language specifically for students and lecturers in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. However, there are sections of the course which will interest students in senior
forms of secondary schools, Teachers Colleges and the general reader.

The book is in three parts. Pa.rt 1 is on the foundations. This part discusses the nature of language and also provides a carefully simplified treatment of the concept – Phonetics.
Two chapters are devoted to the foundation issues.

Part 2 is on core issues in spoken language. It focuses on sound units and segments and the way such speech components contribute to the realization of intelligible utterances. Three chapters are devoted to this subsection of Part 2. The next two chapters are devoted to two basic units of spoken language — issues traditionally referred to as consonant and vowel sounds. In each of those chapters, emphasis is on explication, analysis and description of the
basic sounds with particular reference to the English language in the first instance, and to Ibibio as well as to French, Spanish and other languages, (for purposes of illustration).

Part 3 is the epilogue. It has one chapter – chapter 8 – that discusses the acquisition, learning and mastery of first, second, foreign as well as alternate spoken languages.

It is our firm belief that students in universities and tertiary institutions particularly those in departments of English, Linguistics, Communication and Theatre Arts and Education from their first year to their penultimate year will find this source a useful one for the consolidation of their knowledge of the aspects of spoken language treated.
DE & IU

Prof. David Eka

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Prof David Eka is an erudite Professor of English with 42 years experience. As a scholar who specializes in The Phonology of English, Sociolinguistics, General Phonetics, Applied Linguistics and Use of English/Language Planning, he has lectured and imparted knowledge to many in several Institutions across the nation and beyond. He holds professional memberships in some bodies some of which includes Literary Society of Nigeria. A major part of his career has been with the University of Uyo, where he lectured and held several responsibilities within the Faculty of Arts and the University at large. He has lectured 7 Undergraduate Courses, 4 Postgraduate Courses and supervised several Undergraduate and Postgraduate projects, thesis and dissertations.

He has authored several books, book chapters and journal articles, many of which are open access on his website. He has been the Chief Editor to the Journal of Humanities for several volumes. He is a Ruling Elder in the Presbyterian Church. He is blessed with a beautiful family.

Prof David Eka has been a great gift to humanity and the English profession. His Official Knowledgebase van be accessed via www.davideka.com.ng.

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