Colloid and Surface Chemistry and Applications

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PREFACE
The author has given an introductory course in Colloid and
Surface: Chemistry and Applications, which initially were
treated as special topics in Physical Chemistry, but
nowadays, due to their special importance in everyday
phenomena, have been constituted into a new field of study.
These topics are discussed under two sections. The first
treats Colloid Chemistry, (Chapters 1 – 4) while the second
deals with Surface Chemistry, (Chapters 5 — 7) and Chapter
8 discusses. the applications of these phenomena.
In the first case, the concept of colloidal systems, their
classification, preparation of sols and the general properties
of colloidal systems are given. In the second case the
surface chemistry is treated under the consequences of
interfaces/surfaces: surface tension and adsorption
processes. Forces operating at the interfaces and the
thermodynamic“description, of an interface are also given.
The concepts of surface tension and adsorption/desorption
are used in explaining the phenomena of detergency,
wetting of surfaces jformation of unimolecular surface film,
sizing of paper, emulsion and foam formation and breaking.
The textbook is recommended for students majoring in
Chemistry (Pure and Applied) and Chemical Engineering in
the first degree programmes in the university or the HND
programmes in Chemistry in the polytechnics. The book will
be found useful for industrialists in the pulp and paper
industry, paint, detergent, textile, food and pharmaceutical
industries. ‘
The author acknowledges with delight the works of Samuel
Glasstone, S. Voyutsky and Duncan_T. Shaw from which he
has drawn much insight into Colloid and Surface Chemistry.
Ukana D. Akpabfo
2007

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title ‘
Dedication
Preface

CHAPTER ONE COLLOID CHEMISTRY
Introduction
Definition of Colloidal System
Summary of Characteristics of Colloidal Systems

CHAPTER TWO CLASSIFICATION OF COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS
Wolfgang – Ostwald Classification
Irreversible and Reversible Colloidal Systems
Freely Dispersed and Coherently Dispersed Systems

CHAPTER THREE PREPARATION OF SOLS
Dispersion methods
Condensation Methods

CHAPTER FOUR PROPERTIES OF SOLS
Dialysis
Tyndall Effect
Brownian Movement
Electrophoresis
Coagulation by Electrolytes

CHAPTER FIVE SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Introduction
Consequences of Interfaces/Surfaces
Surface Tension / Surface Energy
Related Surface Phenomenon: Adsorption
Soption Forces
Summary of the Nature of an Interface

CHAPTER SIX FORC OPERATING IN THE INTERFACE
Forcégetween molecules in Bulk Matter
Forces between molecules across Interfaces
The Interface between two immiscibleliquids
Attractive forces at the Interface ‘

CHAPTER SEVEN THERMODYNAMIC DESCRIPTION OF AN INTERFACE
lnterfacial Tension at a Plane Surface
Free Energy of an Interface
Treatment for Closed Systems:
Classical Approach by Harkins
Methods of Guggenheim and Hill
Treatment for the Open Systems
Gibbs — Duhem Equation for an lnterphase
Surface Excess of Systems

CHAPTER EIGHT APPLICATIONS
Detergency
Unimolecular Surface Film
Adsorption Processes
The Solid/Gas Interface
Solid/liquid lnteiface
Experimental method of determining the amount of adsorption
The Liquid/Gas Interface
Contact Angle and Wetting of surfaces at Gas-Liquid-Solid Interfaces
Sizing in Paper
Emulsion
Foam

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