Effect of Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) extract on serum amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and selected indices of liver and kidney functions

by M. U. Eteng(1), H. A. Ibekwe(2), A. O. Abolaji(3), A. I. Okoi(4), Onwuka, F. C.(1) and N. C. Osuchukwu(5)

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ABSTRACT:
In a risk assessment and safety evaluation, the effect of Rauwolfia Vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) extract on serum amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and selected indices of liver and kidney functions were investigated. Ethanolic root and leaf extracts of R. vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) were administered externally by gastric incubation to two groups of rats at dose 524 mg/kg body weight for a 7 day period. The control received 2 ml of saline for the same period. Biochemical and clinical indices of toxicity; serum aminotransferases, urea, creatinine, total bilrubin, albumin and electrolytes were assessed in serum obtained from treated animals as well as those in the control groups. The extract at the doses administered produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum aminotransferases [asparate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)], alkaline phosphatase activities, serum conjugated bilirubin and urea concentration but a decrease in serum albumin and potassium concentrations relative to controls. The spectrum of changes in biochemical and clinical indices of toxicity were more pronounced with the root extract than the leaf extract. The results of this present work showed that hepatocellulular derangement and poor renal function is more pronounced in the ethanolic root extracts compared with the ethanolic leaf extracts.
Key words: Rauwolfia vomitoria, biochemical/clinical-indices, hepatocellular derangement, renal function.

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1 – Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
2 – Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.
3 – Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology Nigeria, P. M. B. 1023, Canaan Land Ota, P. M. B. 1023, Ogun State, Nigeria.
4 – Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar.
5 – Department of Public Health, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, P. M. B. 1115, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Prof Mbeh Eteng

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Mbeh Eteng is a Professor of Biochemistry in the Faculty of University of Calabar. He holds a Ph.D from the University of Calabar (2000). He was Dean of Faculty of Basic Medical Science (2012-2016) and Chairman Committee of Deans (2014-2015). Member Governing Board UCTH, Calabar (2018 -till date). Fellow, Institute of Co-operate Administration. His current area of research is on malaria/prostrate hyperplaxia and medicinal plants research and use in management. He has successfully supervised 25 Ph.Ds.
Get to know more about him and access more of his publications through his personal knowledgebase – http://www.mbeheteng.com.ng

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