Evaluation of the biochemical and anti-snake venom effects of Calliandra Portoricensis extract fractions in wistar rat models challenged with venom of carpet viper (Echis Ocellatus)

by Henry P Onyeama(2); Godwin O Igile(1); Bob I. A. Mgbeje(1); Mbeh U Eteng(1); Patrick E Ebong(1)

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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the anti-snake venom effects of the flavonoid, polyphenolic and whole ethanolic fraction of the leaves of Calliandra portoricensis on some biochemical indices in Albino wistar rat challenged with carpet viper snake venom. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard methodologies. Thirty (30) albino wistar rats of both sexes weighing between 100-150g were divided into five groups of six rats each. Groups 1 and 2 served as normal control and viperian venom control respectively. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were each injected intramuscularly with 0.2 ml of 1mg/ml, equivalent of 0.2mg, of viperian venom and subsequently injected with 0.5 ml of 100mg/100g body weight (b.w.) anti-dote fractions of flavonoid, polyphenolic and whole ethanolic extracts of Calliandra portoricensis respectively. The animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and then sacrificed. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture into pre-labelled sterile bottles for haematological analyses. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols and more specifically 2- hydroxyl, 4-methoxy benzoic acid. AST and ALT activity showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in all treated groups when compared to normal control. A significant increase (p<0.05) in creatine kinase (CK) activity was observed in venom control compared to normal control. These values decreased significantly (p< 0.05) in the fractions and extract treated groups, more so in the polyphenol and whole extract groups. The HGB level showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) while RBC and WBC counts showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the venom control groups compared to normal control group. The HGB and RBC levels were reversed towards normal by treatment with the fractions and whole extract whereas only the flavonoid fraction reversed the WBC levels towards normal. The LDL:HDL ratio was found to be 1.44, 9.47, 0.44, 0.11 and 0.37 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. A marked increase (p<0.05) in SOD and GPx activity was observed in groups 3, 4 and 5 when compared to the normal and viperian control groups. The phytochemical constituents in the plant extract may significantly lower the high lipid peroxidation and ameliorate hematotoxic effects induced by viperian venom. This may account for the protection against cardio-toxicity and the shock that normally accompanies carpet viper envenomation.
Key words: Snake venom, Envenomation, Calliandra portoricensis, Phytochemicals, Biochemical indices, Wistar Rats

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1 – Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.
2 – National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Prof Mbeh Eteng

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Mbeh Eteng is a Professor of Biochemistry in the Faculty of University of Calabar. He holds a Ph.D from the University of Calabar (2000). He was Dean of Faculty of Basic Medical Science (2012-2016) and Chairman Committee of Deans (2014-2015). Member Governing Board UCTH, Calabar (2018 -till date). Fellow, Institute of Co-operate Administration. His current area of research is on malaria/prostrate hyperplaxia and medicinal plants research and use in management. He has successfully supervised 25 Ph.Ds.
Get to know more about him and access more of his publications through his personal knowledgebase – http://www.mbeheteng.com.ng

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