Polymer Chemistry and Applications

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PREFACE
This book is written as an introduction to the ever expanding science,
Polymer Chemistry. The author assumes that the it readers have good foundation in chemistry.
In chapter one a brief historical development of the synthetic
polymers is given together with the applications of the polymers.
Chapters two, three, four and five deal with the polymerization
reactions classified into step and chain polymerization, examples of
both types of reactions are given; both the free radical and the ionic
mechanisms of chain polymerization reactions are well illustrated
with suitable examples. ln chapter six, stereoisomers of polymers are
well explained; uses of stereoregular polymers are given while
chapter seven deals with copolymers and copolymerization reactions.
Chapters eight and nine are discussed commercial polymerization
systems and polymer reactions respectively; chapter ten summarizes
the general properties of polymers.
In each chapter, there are a few questions to guide, the reader in
revision. The book is recommended as a textbook for the
undergraduate polymer chemistry programme, the engineering
students and those involved in polymer fabrication will find the book
useful. ‘
The author sincerely acknowledges the contributions of all the
forerunner scientists in polymer chemistry, for without them polymeric
materials would still be discarded as waste by-product in course of
the synthesis of organic compounds. The Computer Analyst, Mrs.
Patience Ben did her work patiently and efficiently, l thank her very
much. To my students who encouraged me to write this book. I wish
them the best in reading this book in order to discover more about
these special macromolecules and their applications.
Ukana D. Akpabio
2008

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Description

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title
Dedication
Preface

CHAPTER ONE: BRIEF HISTORY OF POLYMERS
Introduction
Synthetic polymers
Concept of polymers
IUPAC Definition
Classification of polymers
Homopolymer and copolymers
Structural shapes of polymers
Linear polymer
Non — linear polymers
Branched polymers
Branched Homopolymer
Branched copolymer
Cross linked and space network polymers
Nomenclature
Inorganic polymers
Organic polymers
Study Guide One

CHAPTER TWO: POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS
Classification of Polymerization Reaction
Raw materials for the polymer industry
Monomers
Study Guide Two

CHAPTER THREE: STEP POLYMERIZATION
Features of step polymerization
Mechanism and kinetics of polyesterification
Self catalysed polymerization
Externally catalysed polymerization
Study Guide Three

CHAPTER FOUR: CHAIN (ADDITION) POLYMERIZATION FREE
RADICAL MECHANISM
Generation of Free Radicals
Chain Transfer
inhibitors and Ftetarders
Configuration of monomer units in vinyl polymer chain
Steady state kinetics of vinyl radical polymerization
The Rate of initiation
Rate of polymerization
Termination reaction
Study Guide Four

CHAPTER FIVE: IONIC POLYMERIZATION ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION OF VINYL POLYMERS
Initiation with potassium guide in liquid ammonia
Initiation with n – Butyl lithium Benzene
Initiation with n – Butyl lithium in a mixture of Benzene and THF
Initiation with alkali metals
Kinetics of Anionic polymerization
Polymerization of diene
Cationic Polymerization
Cationic polymerization of styrene
lnifnted with stannic chloride co – catalyzed water
Polyrneriza?on of propylene (propene) initiated with aluminum triaronide co – catalyzed by HBr
Kinetics of cationic polymerization
Energetic of cationic polymerization
Study Guide Five

CHAPTER SIX: POLYMERIZATION OF STEREOREGULAR POLYMERS
Stereoisomers in polymers
Monosubstituted Vinyl polymer
Disubstituted Vinyl polymer
Nomenclature of 1, 2 – disubstituted Vinyl polymers
Study Guide Six (A)
Factors That Affect Stereoregulation in Alkene Polymers
Stereoregular or Coordination Polymerization Using Ziegler Natta
Catalysts
Properties and Uses of Steroeregular Polymers
Study Guide Six (B)

CHAPTER SEVEN: COPOLYMERIZATION
STEP COPOLYMERIZATION
Synthesis of copolymers (polyamide)
Alternating-copolymers
Block co -polymers
Random copolymers
Chain Copolymerization
Uses of copolymers
Study Guide Seven

CHAPTER EIGHT: POLYMERIZATION CONDITIONS AND SYSTEMS
Homogeneous systems
Heterogeneous systems
Preparation of alkene polymers: polyethylene
lsotatic polypropylene
Study Guide Eight

CHAPTER NINE: CHEMICAL REACTION OF POLYMERS
Polymers Reactivity
Polymer modification Reactions
Cross — linking
Vulcanization of rubber
Polymer degradation
Study Guide Nine

CHAPTER TEN: SUMMARY OF GENERAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS
Molar mass
Study Guide Ten

 

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