Biochemical Indices of Macrovascular Complication in Diabetic Rat Model: Compared Effects of Vernonia amygdalina, Catharantus roseus and Chlorpropamide

by M.U. Eteng(1), B.J. Bassey(1), I.J. Atangwho(1), G.E. Egbung(1), E.U. Eyong(1), P.E. Ebong(1) and A.O. Abolaji(2)


Hypoglycemic and biochemical effects of herbal extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Compositae), Catharantus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceace) and chlorpropamide were compared and status of macrovascular complications evaluated using biochemical indices in normal and diabetic rats. The phytochemistry of the herbs was also assessed. Hypoglycemic activity of the herbs and chlorpropamide was evaluated on diabetic and non-diabetic rats but biochemical effects of the treatments was evaluated only on diabetic rats, assigned into four study groups (n = 8). Group I (control) received placebo (30% ethanol), treatment group II was gavaged with chlorpropamide in dose 14.28 mg kg body weight, while groups III and IV were administered extracts of V. amygdalina (400 mg kg body weight) and C. roseus (400 mg kg! body weight), respectively in 30% ethanol vehicle for 21 days. Results of the phytochemistry assessment identified alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins in V. amygdalina and C. roseus. Triterpenes were identified only in V. amygdalina and anthroquinones only in C. roseus. All three treatments produced hypoglycaemic activity in normal and diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 to <0.01) reduced triglyceride and total Cholesterol relative to controls. C. roseus alone significantly (p<0.01) elevated HDL-Cholesterol. Serum protein significantly (p<0.05) increased in all treatments compared with controls. Urea levels decreased in all the treatments but more dramatic with chlorpropamide. Aminotransferase activity was not altered except serum ALT which was reduced in treated rats. Electrolyte profile showed dilutional hyponatremia with chlorpropamide treatment, which was absent in C. roseus treatment but mild in V. amygdalina. These changes in biochemical indices of toxicity and macrovascular complications are discussed with respect to the comparative therapeutic benefits of the three treatments. Key words: Biochemical-indices, Catharantus roseus, diabetes, chlorpropamide, hyponatremia, macrovascular complications, Vernonia amygdalina


1 – Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
2 – Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria

Prof Mbeh Eteng

Mbeh Eteng is a Professor of Biochemistry in the Faculty of University of Calabar. He holds a Ph.D from the University of Calabar (2000). He was Dean of Faculty of Basic Medical Science (2012-2016) and Chairman Committee of Deans (2014-2015). Member Governing Board UCTH, Calabar (2018 -till date). Fellow, Institute of Co-operate Administration. His current area of research is on malaria/prostrate hyperplaxia and medicinal plants research and use in management. He has successfully supervised 25 Ph.Ds.
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