Plasma Lipid Profile and Target Organ Effect of Theobromine Extracts from Cocoa in Wistar Rats

by M. U. Eteng, P. E. Ebong, E. U. Eyong and A. N. Sama


The influence of theobromine rich extracts of cocoa on plasma lipid profile and its organ specific effects on the kidney and liver were determined in twenty female weaning albino wistar rats. Varying concentration, 70 mg/kg, 140 mg/kg and 210mg/kg body weight of theobromine in 0.9% normal saline were administered intraperitoneally (1.P.) to different groups of the rats weighing between 120-160 g body weight for four consecutive days. The control group received normal saline” only. Theobromine rich extracts of cocoa produced a dose dependant increase in the levels of total plasma cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, in all experimental groups. However, the increase was only statistically significant (P<0.05) in the group that received a dose 140 mg/kg body weight of theobromine. Although there was a dose dependant increase in the level of LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and total plasma triglycerides in the experimental animal group, this increase was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The microscopic examination of the liver showed no significant histopathological changes but there were significant histopathological lessions in the kidney evidenced as, vacuolar degeneration of proximal tubular epithelium, vascular congestion, eosinophilic cast, lymphocytic infiltration oedema and acute tubular necrosis: The factors responsible for elevation in plasma:lipids and the significance of such a rise are discussed in relation to antherogenesis.
Key words: theobromine, plasma lipid-profile, kidney lession, artheorogenesis

Prof Mbeh Eteng

Mbeh Eteng is a Professor of Biochemistry in the Faculty of University of Calabar. He holds a Ph.D from the University of Calabar (2000). He was Dean of Faculty of Basic Medical Science (2012-2016) and Chairman Committee of Deans (2014-2015). Member Governing Board UCTH, Calabar (2018 -till date). Fellow, Institute of Co-operate Administration. His current area of research is on malaria/prostrate hyperplaxia and medicinal plants research and use in management. He has successfully supervised 25 Ph.Ds.
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